The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.
The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960. Its symbol is defined as a letter S with either one or two vertical bars superimposed prefixing the amount,$ or ; the single-bar symbol, available in most modern text systems, is almost always used. Both of these symbols are used by many currencies, most notably the US dollar, and may be ambiguous without clarification such as CLP$ or US$. The ISO 4217 code for the present peso is CLP. It is officially subdivided into 100 centavos, although there are no current centavo-denominated coins. The exchange rate was around CLP$600 to 1 U.S. dollar at the end of 2014; by August 2015 it fell to 694 per 1 US dollar.
First peso, 1817–1960
The first Chilean peso was introduced in 1817, at a value of 8 Spanish colonial reales. Until 1851, the peso was subdivided into 8 reales, with the escudo worth 2 pesos. In 1835, copper coins denominated in centavos were introduced but it was not until 1851 that the real and escudo denominations ceased to be issued and further issues in centavos and décimos (worth 10 centavos) commenced. Also in 1851, the peso was set equal 5 French francs on the sild, 22.5grams pure silver. However, gold coins were issued to a different standard to that of France, with 1 peso = 1.37grams gold (5 francs equalled 1.45grams gold). In 1885, a gold standard was adopted, pegging the peso to the British pound at a rate of 13⅓ pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 1 shilling 6 pence). This was reduced in 1926 to 40 pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 6 pence). From 1925, coins and banknotes were issued denominated in cóndores, worth 10 pesos. The gold standard was suspended in 1932 and the peso's value fell further. The escudo replaced the peso on 1 January 1960 at a rate 1 escudo = 1000 pesos.
The Dingling (Chinese:丁零) are an ancient people mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.
They are assumed to have been an early Turkic-speaking people,
whose original constituents mainly assimilated into the Xiongnu and Xianbei groups.
They originally lived on the bank of the Lena River in the area west of Lake Baikal, gradually moving southward to Mongolia and northern China. They were subsequently part of the Xiongnu Empire, and thus presumably related to the invaders known as Huns in the west.
Around the 3rd century they were assimilated into the Tiele, also named Gaoche (高車) or Chile (敕勒), who gradually expanded westward into Central Asia, expelled from Mongolia by the Rouran and establishing a state Turpan in the 5th century.
The Tiele were a collection of early Turkic tribes, largely descended from the Chile.
Origin and migration
The Dingling were a warlike group of hunters, fishers, and gatherers of the southern Siberian mountain taiga region from Lake Baikal to northern Mongolia. Chinese records do not mention the physical appearance of the Dingling, suggesting general homogeneity with people of the Asiatic region, and their name appears rarely.
Using the Very Large Telescope and the radio telescope ALMA in Chile, a team of astronomers including researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute has discovered a swarm of galaxies orbiting the surroundings of a hyper-luminous and vigorously star-forming galaxy in the early universe.
This article and GRNH radio production were first published on September 15, 2013 ... But for the people of Chile, much of Latin America, and democratic reformers at large, it marks another significant anniversary ... The new order in Chile saw massive economic reforms take effect.
The JamesWebb Telescope is the long-awaited successor to the Hubble Telescope... “13 billion years ago ... – We applied for time a year ago and we got it despite the competition, Per Bjerkeli tells TT. – After that, the telescope was raised and calibrated, and now it was time ... They previously used the Alma radio telescope in Chile ... Image.
What’s the recipe for forming stars? Yep, lots of gas and dust. Galaxies rich in these materials get to make a lot of stars. When the supply runs out, star formation stops ... That’s the story that the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (a radio astronomy facility) in Chile discovered when it focused on this newly dormant galaxy ... Credit ... .
Chile's agriculture is "very powerful and diverse," Esteban Valenzuela told local station RadioCooperativa, noting "there has been no shortage of production." ... With more than 75 percent of its territory affected by drought, Chile has experienced more than 13 years of water ...
Sonali Phogat death ... The three panels in the video contain images of M87 translated from X0ray data from Chandra, optical light from Hubble and radio waves from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile respectively ... Tags ... .
The light travelled some 6 to 9 billion light-years across the Universe and was picked up by the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory in Chile... Located in the high-altitude Atacama Desert in Chile, the ALMA array comprises 66 radio telescopes, making it the largest radio telescope in the world.
Located in the high-altitude Atacama Desert in Chile, the ALMA array comprises 66 radio telescopes, making it the largest radio telescope in the world ... Only half a dozen short-duration GRBs have been detected at radio wavelengths, and, until now, none had been detected in millimeter wavelengths.