The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.
The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960. Its symbol is defined as a letter S with either one or two vertical bars superimposed prefixing the amount,$ or ; the single-bar symbol, available in most modern text systems, is almost always used. Both of these symbols are used by many currencies, most notably the US dollar, and may be ambiguous without clarification such as CLP$ or US$. The ISO 4217 code for the present peso is CLP. It is officially subdivided into 100 centavos, although there are no current centavo-denominated coins. The exchange rate was around CLP$600 to 1 U.S. dollar at the end of 2014; by August 2015 it fell to 694 per 1 US dollar.
First peso, 1817–1960
The first Chilean peso was introduced in 1817, at a value of 8 Spanish colonial reales. Until 1851, the peso was subdivided into 8 reales, with the escudo worth 2 pesos. In 1835, copper coins denominated in centavos were introduced but it was not until 1851 that the real and escudo denominations ceased to be issued and further issues in centavos and décimos (worth 10 centavos) commenced. Also in 1851, the peso was set equal 5 French francs on the sild, 22.5grams pure silver. However, gold coins were issued to a different standard to that of France, with 1 peso = 1.37grams gold (5 francs equalled 1.45grams gold). In 1885, a gold standard was adopted, pegging the peso to the British pound at a rate of 13⅓ pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 1 shilling 6 pence). This was reduced in 1926 to 40 pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 6 pence). From 1925, coins and banknotes were issued denominated in cóndores, worth 10 pesos. The gold standard was suspended in 1932 and the peso's value fell further. The escudo replaced the peso on 1 January 1960 at a rate 1 escudo = 1000 pesos.
The Dingling (Chinese:丁零) are an ancient people mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.
They are assumed to have been an early Turkic-speaking people,
whose original constituents mainly assimilated into the Xiongnu and Xianbei groups.
They originally lived on the bank of the Lena River in the area west of Lake Baikal, gradually moving southward to Mongolia and northern China. They were subsequently part of the Xiongnu Empire, and thus presumably related to the invaders known as Huns in the west.
Around the 3rd century they were assimilated into the Tiele, also named Gaoche (高車) or Chile (敕勒), who gradually expanded westward into Central Asia, expelled from Mongolia by the Rouran and establishing a state Turpan in the 5th century.
The Tiele were a collection of early Turkic tribes, largely descended from the Chile.
Origin and migration
The Dingling were a warlike group of hunters, fishers, and gatherers of the southern Siberian mountain taiga region from Lake Baikal to northern Mongolia. Chinese records do not mention the physical appearance of the Dingling, suggesting general homogeneity with people of the Asiatic region, and their name appears rarely.
When they were little, they gazed with fascination at the starry skies of Chile and Colombia...Chili – who does his research casually Alma Observatory, Located in the Atacama region in northern Chile – confirming that the Latin American continent has a “natural laboratory” that “we must protect”.
13 (Xinhua) -- Decades ago, a live radio speech reverberated across Chile...The CIA sent a secret telegram to its station in Chile five days later ... 3, 1973, the CIA generated 726 articles, TV and radio reports and editorials in Chile and worldwide, criticizing Allende's government for trying to control the press.
Instead, astronomers got eight radio telescopes scattered across the planet to work together in what they called The EventHorizonTelescope (EHT) ... The radio waves each dish collects get brought together so precisely their peaks combine to produce detail far beyond the capacity of each one individually.
I was living in Santiago, the capital of Chile, having arrived in September 1970 on the occasion of the election of Salvador Allende, a Socialist elected with a plurality of the votes ...Nixon and his administration were determined to rid Chile of its democratically elected government ... “I have faith in Chile and its destiny.
“T here is a graveyard smell to Chile, the fumes of democracy in decomposition,” wrote Edward Korry, the U.S. ambassador to Chile, soon after the 1970 election of the Socialist PresidentSalvador Allende... After a major effort to register voters and restore electoral procedures, Chile achieved a peaceful return to democracy.
To confirm this, an international team of scientists formed the Troy project, which has been using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile to collect radio emissions from the very young dwarf star PDS 70, located 370 light years away in the constellation of Centaurus.
Weird Science... Until now, that is ... If confirmed, the discovery would be the first such system ever found by astronomers ... "Exotrojans have so far been like unicorns ... To find any possible Trojan planets, researchers analyzed data from Chile's Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array of radio telescopes, also known as ALMA, to probe the PDS 70 system.
The team detected this potential Trojan in the form of a dust cloud following a young planet using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a network of radio telescopes in Chile...Amazing photos from the ALMA radio telescopeTrojans inside and outside the solar system.
Discovery... The team of astronomers used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile to make their observations ... The team of astronomers used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope (pictured) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile for their research ... .
Recently, a large radio telescope detected low frequency radio waves from dozens of Starlink satellites in low Earth orbit...Radio astronomers are worried ... In contrast, terrestrial radio astronomy is well protected ... Other radio observatories have avoided radio interference by choosing sites in remote parts of Australia, Chile and South Africa.
... Chiles, author, broadcaster, columnist, and for these purposes, longtime dispenser of searching but practical thoughts on booze, met comedian John Robins when they were making adjacent shows on Radio5 Live.